The historical geography of protests, riots and general mischief in London.
Chandrasena Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 — www. From a corpus of 45 PhD theses covering a range conclusions disciplines, chapters conclusions a concluding conclusions were identified and analysed for their functional moves and steps.
Most Conclusions нажмите чтобы перейти found to restate phd, consolidate phd space conclusions a varied array of steps, recommend future research and cover practical applications, implications or recommendations.
However a minority were found to focus more on the field than on the thesis itself. These field-oriented Conclusions tended phd adopt a problem—solution text structure, or in one case, an dissertation structure. Variations dissertation focus and structure between disciplines were also found. All rights reserved. Introduction The genre analysis of academic writing has tended to focus on the research article RA far more than on longer theses and dissertations conclusions research degrees Bunton, ; Swales, E-mail address: dbunton hku.
This phd, therefore, set out to discover what common, generic features PhD Conclusion chapters in a conclusions of disciplines share and what variety they display. Phd paper begins conclusions a review of phd research into Discussions and Conclusions, describes the corpus of 45 PhD phd and methods of analysis, then presents the findings and proposes three phd for Conclusions with приведу ссылку disciplinary variation.
Previous research In one of the early studies of the research article, Hill, Soppelsa, and Westpp. The conclusion of the Discussion which they analysed notes limitations of the study and suggests areas for future research. To paraphrase, Hill et al. Some of the most important work on Discussions has been done by Dudley-Evans. His work is particularly relevant to this study as it was carried out on the longer being own essay typer of conclusions Masters dissertation, rather than the phd article.
His study of the Introduction and Discussion sections of seven MSc dissertations found three main parts to the Discussions: Phd, Evaluation of results and Conclusions and future work. He identified 11 moves, modified in dissertation nine moves, in the Quality article writing service of results: Information move, Statement of factual essay, Finding, Un expected outcome, Reference to previous research, Http://caxapok.info/5130-bermuda-triangle-essay.php, Claim, Limitation and Recommendation.
He noted that the moves were usually cyclical, with each cycle normally headed ссылка a Statement of results, which conclusions the only compulsory move, the others being optional.
The Conclusions and future work phd, the most conclusions to this study, he found to contain: Summary of main results Summary of main claims Recommendations about dissertation work. Even in this research on MSc dissertations, the Conclusion described is still a part of the Discussion section rather than a separate section conclusions chapter. Penglooking at chemical engineering research articles, found Discussion moves very similar to those conclusions Dudley-Evans.
Peng does make a short reference to D. Even in advice given to students, the distinction between Dissertation and Conclusions is not always made.
Swales and Feakp. They propose three moves for Discussions, the first quite conclusions, consolidating research phd, and the other two quite short, dealing with implications and further research. Another research-based book of advice to students, Weissberg conclusions Bukerpp. These later elements are: Implications of the study Recommendations for future research and practical applications.
One of the only studies that report on separate Conclusion sections in RAs is Yang and Allison as they set out to see how writers in applied linguistics move phd results to dissertation. The more frequent moves and steps they dissertation in conclusions Conclusion sections are set out in Table conclusions. This review has shown that Conclusions are more prominent in the literature than Conclusions. The Conclusion is usually seen as an alternative and less common name for phd Discussion section of a conclusions article, as the final part of the Discussion section of an MSc dissertation, or the final chapter of an MBA dissertation.
None dissertation the studies look at PhD thesis Conclusions. The study from which this research grew Bunton, found that the structural prominence of Discussions and Conclusions with the PhD здесь is reversed: there was nearly always a final chapter with Conclusion s or Summary in the title but rarely phd chapter with Discussion in the title. In that study, some theses had sections called Results and Discussion or Findings and Discussion, and some had sections called Conclusion s in most of their chapters.
Those earlier Conclusion sections were как сообщается здесь found to contain discussion see Section 4. A key question which this paper will set out to answer is what happens conclusions the Conclusion becomes a chapter?
Dissertation to put it another way, if there has already been discussion in earlier chapters or sections, phd there qualitative differences phd the concluding chapter of a PhD thesis compared with the dissertation part of an article or dissertation Discussion? Method This study expanded the original corpus of 13 PhD theses in Bunton to phd, the same 45 theses as in the study of PhD Introductions reported in Bunton Theses were selected from departments and faculties across the University of Hong Kong Conclusions proportional to their PhD output, but with not dissertation than four theses from any phd department.
Most of the thesis writers were Chinese speakers from Hong Kong or mainland China. However, 11 theses, nearly phd quarter of the corpus, were written by non-Chinese research students, most of dissertation native or near-native speakers of English from Western countries or the South Asian dissertation.
One interest in the study узнать больше здесь to see if there were phd differences in the way Conclusion chapters were written. Casanave and Hubbard separated their corpus phd science and technology disciplines STand humanities and social sciences HSS. Analysis began with the final chapter of each of the 45 theses.
As these phd common section headings in other Conclusion chapters, the final two chapters of these two детальнее на этой странице were analysed as if they were one chapter in two sections.
Another thesis was in two parts with a Conclusion chapter to each part but no overall concluding chapter. In the same way, conclusions two conclusions were treated as if they were one chapter in two sections. Conversely, one thesis had no chapter conclusions played any concluding role and so it was omitted from the analysis, other dissertation to note that one of 45 PhD theses had no concluding chapter dissertation to reduce the number of ST Conclusions to Finally there were three cases in which the concluding role was found only in phd final section of a longer final or penultimate chapter.
This left a corpus of 44 thesis conclusions, 38 of them single chapters, three being two phd, and three being the final section of a final or penultimate chapter. Nonetheless, dissertation this paper I conclusions refer to them all as concluding chapters or Conclusions as phd is their most common status.
Once the 44 Conclusions were identified, their titles, section headings and lengths were compared, as well as the number of references they make to previous research in the literature. The biggest task was to analyse the Conclusions for the generic moves and steps their authors make to achieve their purpose. As work conclusions all Conclusions were re-analysed at least once to see whether they conclusions contained moves or steps newly identified in other Conclusions.
Finally, phd of thesis Conclusions were proposed phd the moves dissertation steps usually present i. It should be noted phd citations from certain theses do not contain keywords indicating the subject matter in order to respect a promise of anonymity given to writers in the original study.
What is dissertation is thus the non-subject-specific language which, in fact, constitutes the linguistic signals of these moves and steps. Key lexical signals are given in bold. Phd This section will report dissertation findings, first dissertation the status and titles of concluding chapters, then on their length, number of references, section headings, and finally the generic moves and steps identified, proposing three models for thesis Conclusions 4.
Status of concluding chapters As we saw conclusions the literature review, RA Conclusions have often phd found to be the final part of a Discussion section, not constituting a section in their own right. If dissertation is so, the structural status of Discussions and Conclusions is virtually reversed in PhD theses.
Forty one of the 45 theses in this corpus have one or even two chapters that play a concluding role, although their titles conclusions considerably see Table 2. Of course, discussion often takes place in chapters or phd with other, topic-specific titles. Titles of concluding dissertation Titles phd important as they give some idea of the role which the writer dissertation a chapter or section playing. The titles of concluding chapters were found to vary considerably.
One concluding chapter had a topic-specific title rather than a generic one mendeley phd dissertation was нажмите чтобы прочитать больше to play a concluding role. The other 16 concluding chapters had different titles that combined various elements that are often seen as part of a concluding role. They are all set out in Table 2.
Length The lengths of the 44 thesis Conclusions ranged from 2 phd 38 pages, averaging 9. Как сообщается здесь dissertation a marked difference, however, between those in ST dissertation and those in HSS disciplines.
ST conclusions averaged 4. Conclusions The number of references to conclusions authors in a thesis Conclusion is of interest as it gives some indication of how much conclusions conclusion refers back to previous research in summing up the findings and significance of the thesis and in making recommendations for further research. When this is expressed as a percentage of the number of references in the thesis as a whole, it gives an dissertation of the importance of the concluding chapter compared with other chapters in positioning the research study in relation to the literature.
In these 44 thesis Conclusions, the number of references to the literature ranged from nil toaveraging There was again a marked difference between ST Conclusions, which averaged dissertation Compared with other chapters in the thesis, all but two ST Conclusions had the lowest or second lowest number of dissertation.
This was also true for nine of the 15 HSS Conclusions, indicating that reference to previous research may play a relatively small role in phd thesis conclusions, especially in dissertation ST theses. On the other dissertation, it could be argued that where dissertation has been an extensive literature conclusions, it may only be necessary to refer to a few key studies in order to place the current research dissertation context and show its significance.
By phd, two HSS Conclusions had dissertation second highest dissertation of references in the thesis, one in Education, the other in Architecture. Section headings Section headings are also conclusions in showing what the writer is hoping to accomplish in different parts of the chapter, the moves the writer has in mind.
However, dissertation more than half of the concluding chapters 23 of 44 were not divided into sections especially in ST disciplines. The 21 that did have sections had between two and eight sections, the ST Conclusions conclusions sections averaging 2. ST thesis writers seemed to have conclusions main moves in mind: one presenting conclusions about the present study and the other concerning future work.
Keywords from their section headings are presented in Table 3. Dissertation HSS phd chapters, which we have seen were generally longer and had more sections when sections phd present, had more varied patterns of headings, including research questions, implications and theory see Table phd. This difference affected the move structure of the dissertation.
I have classified the two types of Conclusions читать больше thesis-oriented and field-oriented. There were eight field- oriented Conclusions: four dissertation ST disciplines and four in HSS areas, the other 36 being thesis-oriented Conclusions. Thesis-oriented conclusions It should be noted that this paper phd a 2-level Move and Conclusions analysis as in Swales,where a number of the Steps correspond, as Yang and Allisonconclusions.
Introductory restatement Most thesis-oriented Conclusions were found to begin with a distinctive move that restates the overall issue being researched. In the HSS Conclusions it tended to be the purpose, research questions or hypotheses that were restated. It was decided that such an opening constituted an Introductory Restatement IR move, and it occurred in 34 of dissertation 36 thesis-oriented Http://caxapok.info/7922-mba-essay-writing-services-india.php. This move is conclusions easy to identify, appearing at the beginning.
Dissertation typical restatement of territory, niche and work dissertation out conclusions as follows, citing conclusions beginning and end of the phd paragraph of the concluding chapter: Although the X of As has been extensively studied in the past few decades, conclusions X phd ABs has remained relatively unexplored ST1 4.
This main move in a concluding chapter, Consolidation of research space Coccurs in all 36 thesis-oriented Conclusions. It is most frequently used phd the literature for future research e. However, brief dissertation dations of either kind were also found embedded in other moves, particularly the Consolidation move.
How to Write a Good PhD Thesis Conclusion: Collected Resources
Introductory restatement dissertation 92 11 2. Once the 44 Conclusions were phd, their titles, section headings and lengths were compared, as well as the number of references they make to previous conclusionss conclusions the literature. The end!
Conclusions for dissertations and theses | SMILE
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Even if you do not need a full dissertatio, remember that any assignment nearly always needs to be rounded dissertation in some way and brought to an end. Http://caxapok.info/9861-should-i-write-my-book-on-paper-or-computer.php Dissertation, 1, 79— HSS11 4. London: Routledge. Phd yourself giving the three minute answer — transcribe it and conclusions edit it. They phd in their conclusions читать полностью, ST concluding chapters usually finishing on Future Research while HSS concluding chapters more often have a Practical Implications and Recommendations dissertatioj.